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友善列印 友善列印
流行性造血組織壞死症
疾病代碼: DIS00130
建立日期: 2008/12/26
更新日期: 2009/10/07
作 者: 陳縱宇、張本恒
中文病名: 流行性造血組織壞死症
英文病名: Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis (EHN)
疾病描述: 病因:Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV)、European sheatfish virus (ESV)或European catfish virus (ECV)。 症狀:體色變暗、無活力、共濟失調、 魚種:紅鰭鱸魚 (redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis)、虹鱒 (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss)、鯰魚 (Silurus glanis, Ictalurus melas)、澳洲麥氏鱸 (Macquarie perch ,Macquaria australasica)、食蚊魚 (mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis)、澳洲銀鱸 (silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus)、山南乳魚 (mountain galaxias, Galaxias olidus)。
1.病原概述
病原型別:病毒
病原環境:
學名:Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV)、European sheatfish virus (ESV) 或European catfish virus (ECV)。
最早發現者:
OIE狀況:表列(Listed)
病原摘要:本病原為20面體雙股DNA病毒
人畜共通:否。

2.病原分類
Iridoviridae科,Iridovirus屬,Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV) 及European catfish virus (ECV)
命名沿革:
3.疾病特性
感染組織及器官:感染路徑、好發組織器官
疾病型態及流行病學:水質不良、水溫 (8~21°C)、稚幼魚最易受感染
臨床症狀及病理學:
a.肉眼:腹部膨脹,脾臟及腎臟腫脹肝臟有白點,鰭基部及鰓出血
b.顯微:局部至廣泛性,腎臟造血組織壞死;肝細胞急性點狀壞死;局部至廣泛性,急性脾臟壞死;鰓輕度增生伴隨局部壞死;游鰾壁籲血、水腫壞死;局部急性壞死性心肌炎。在壞死灶周圍的肝細胞、腎間質及脾臟可見圓形至卵圓形嗜鹼性質內包涵體胰臟甲狀腺、偽鰓、胸腺腸道腺窩上皮亦可見壞死灶。
病原致病性意義:EHNV的感染常會造成紅鰭鱸魚嚴重的死亡,而虹鱒卻相當有耐性,僅會造成族群中少量的個體感染。ESV及ECV的感染常會造成鯰魚大量的死亡。
診斷方法: 一級初步診斷: 外觀病變
二級初步診斷: 病理變化
三級初步診斷:病毒分離與培養 (BF-2, CHSE-214 或 EPC),
一級確定診斷:外觀病變
二級確定診斷:病毒分離與培養
三級確定診斷:
免疫螢光染色 (immunofluorescence), 酵素連結免疫吸附試驗 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs]), 免疫電子顯微鏡 (immunoelectron microscopy ), 病毒分離與培養 (BF-2, CHSE-214 或 EPC), 間接螢光抗體試驗 (indirect fluorescent antibody tests, IFAT), 免疫過氧化酶染色 (immunoperoxidase staining), 聚合酶鏈鎖反應(Polymerase Chain Reaction ,PCR), 西方墨點法 (Western blots), SDS-PAGE
治療方法:
預防控制方法:
相關圖片:
參考文獻: Reddacliff LA, Whittington RJ. Pathology of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L). J Comp Pathol. 1996 Aug;115(2):103-15.
Ahne W., Schlotfeldt H.J. & Thomsen I. (1989). Fish viruses: isolation of an icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus from sheatfish (Silurus glanis). J. Vet. Med. [B], 36, 333-336.
Aubertin A.M. (1991). Family Iridoviridae. In: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, Francki R.J., Fauque C.M., Knudson D.L. & Brown F., eds. Arch. Virol., Suppl. 2. Springer, New York, USA, and Vienna, Austria, 132-136.
Eaton B.T., Hyatt A.D. & Hengstberger S. (1991). Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus: purification and classification. J. Fish Dis., 14, 157-169.
Gould A.R., Hyatt A.D., Hengstberger S.H., Whittington R.J. & Coupar B.E.H. (1995). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and Bohle iridovirus. Dis. Aquat. Org., 22, 211-215.
Hedrick R.P., McDowell T.S., Ahne W., Torhy C. & De Kinkelin P. (1992). Properties of three iridovirus-like agents associated with systemic infections of fish. Dis. Aquat. Org., 13, 203-209.
Hengstberger S.G., Hyatt A.D., Speare R.S. & Coupar B.E.H. (1993). Comparison of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and Bohle iridoviruses, recently isolated Australian iridoviruses. Dis. Aquat. Org., 15, 93-107.
Hyatt A.D., Eaton B.T., Hengstberger S. & Russel G. (1991). Epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus: detection by ELISA, immuno-histochemistry and electron microscopy. J. Fish Dis., 14, 605-617.
Hyatt A.D., Gould A.R., Zupanovich Z., Cunningham A.A., Hengstberger S., Whittington R.J., Kattenbelt J. & Coupar B.E.H. (2000). Characterisation of Piscine and Amphibian Iridoviruses. Arch. Virol., 145, 301-331.
Langdon J.S. (1989). Experimental transmission and pathogenicity of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and 11 other teleosts. J. Fish Dis., 12, 295-310.
Langdon J.S., Humphrey J.D., Williams L.M., Hyatt A.D. & Westbury H.A. (1986). First virus isolation from Australian fish: an iridovirus-like pathogen from redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L. J. Fish Dis., 9, 263-268.
Pozet F., Morand M., Moussa A., Torhy C. & De Kinkelin P. (1992). Isolation and preliminary characterization of a pathogenic icosahedral deoxyribovirus from the catfish (Ictalurus melas). Dis. Aquat. Org., 14, 35-42.
Reddacliff L.A. & Whittington R.J. (1996). Pathology of epizootic haematopoeitic necrosis virus (EHNV) infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). J. Comp. Pathol., 115, 103-115.
Steiner K.A., Whittington R.J., Petersen R.K., Hornitzky C. & Garnett H. (1991). Purification of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and its detection using ELISA. J. Virol. Methods, 33, 199-209.
Whittington R.J., Kearns C., Hyatt A.D., Hengstberger S. & Rutzou T. (1995). Spread of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis) in southern Australia. Aust. Vet. J., 73, 112-114.
Whittington R.J., Philby A., Reddacliff G.L. & MacGown A.R. (1994). Epidemiology of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) infection in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): findings based on virus isolation, antigen capture ELISA and serology. J. Fish Dis., 17, 205-218.
Whittington R.J. & Reddacliff G.L. (1995). Influence of environmental temperature on experimental infection of redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, an Australian iridovirus. Aust. Vet. J., 72, 421-424.
Whittington R.J., Reddacliff L.A., Marsh I., Kearns C., Zupanovic Z. & Callinan R.B. (1999). Further observations on the epidemiology and spread of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in farmed rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss in southeastern Australia and a recommended sampling strategy for surveillance. Dis. Aquat. Org., 35, 125-130.
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