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黃頭症
疾病代碼: DIS00125
作 者: 涂堅
中文病名: 黃頭症
英文病名: Yellowheadl disease
疾病描述: 1.病原概述
病原型別: 病毒
病原環境: 淡鹹水 海水學名:Okavirus,Yellowhead virus
病名(及俗名):
最早發現者:
OIE狀況:表列(Listed)。
病原摘要:
黃頭病毒yellowhead virus)是一個 corona-like RNA 病毒,目前歸類在Nidovirales目,桿狀套病毒科(Roniviridae),淋巴病毒屬(Okavirus) 下。 黃頭病毒(基因一型)是黃頭症候群(yellowhead complex)六個基因型中的一個基因型,也是目前已知會引起黃頭病的唯一病原。鰓相關病毒 (Gill- associated virus)為基因二型,與其他三至六型是在東非、亞洲及澳洲健康草蝦體內常發現的病毒,基因二至六型極少或根本不會引起疾病。黃頭症候群中六個基因型目前都歸類在Nidovirales目,桿狀套病毒科(family Roniviridae),淋巴病毒屬(Okavirus) 下。目前有資料顯示六個基因型彼此間會互相基因重組。 本病毒離開蝦體後尚可在海水中存活72小時。60oC下15分;30 ppm chlorine均可不活化 本病毒 本病毒可在 草蝦初代淋巴器官細胞上生長。


人畜共通:非人畜共通傳染病
病原分類
1.病原分類
別名:
命名沿革:
疾病特性:(感染組織及器官:感染路徑、好發組織器官、宿主)
自然感染 黃頭病毒的對蝦包括: 草蝦black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon)、 斑節蝦Kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) 、白香蕉蝦white banana prawn (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis)、白蝦white prawn (Litopenaeus setiferus)、 砂蝦red endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus ensis)、mysid shrimp (Palaemon styliferus),、及南極磷蝦Antarctic krill (Euphasia superba)。
人工感染的對蝦包含:虎紋對蝦 brown tiger prawn (Penaeus esculentus) , 太平洋 白蝦Pacific white prawn (Litopenaeus vannamei), 太平洋 藍蝦Pacific blue prawn (Litopenaues stylirostris), 棕蝦brown prawn (Farfantepenaeus aztecus), 粉紅蝦pink prawn, hopper and brown-spotted prawn (Farfantepenaues duorarum) , 綠尾新對蝦greentail prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae), Sunda river prawn (Machrobrachium sintangene), 鋸齒長臂蝦barred estuarine shrimp (Palaemon serrifer), paste prawn (Ascetes sp.),。實驗室人工感染資料顯示, 黃頭病毒可引起 草蝦、太平洋 白蝦、太平洋 藍蝦、棕蝦、粉紅蝦、M. sintangene、 P. styliferus 及鋸齒長臂蝦.大量死亡。

黃頭病毒主要侵害內皮層級中皮層來源的細胞;包括淋巴器官、造血器官、 外殼下的結締組織、、綠腺、 生殖腺、神經索及神經節。

感染途徑為水平感染,主要為經食入遭含 病毒 糞便污染的食物、水或感染的組織。垂直感染亦會發生。

疾病型態及流行病學:(急性或慢性型態、器官傳播、分佈情形)
在澳洲、亞洲及東非的養殖或野生 草蝦,整個黃頭症候群(yellowhead complex)的盛行率界於50-100%。各個基因型盛行率則因地理分佈有所不同。目前地理分佈在印度、泰國及越南。
臨床症狀及病理學
臨床症狀。
通常PL15後蝦苗才會開始感染,真正會死亡則出現在幼蝦早期及末期。瀕死蝦出現 進食停止 聚集在池邊的水面。身體出現漂過的顏色,頭胸甲出現 黃色的顏色,此乃因為其下變 肝胰腺造成。通常三四天內蝦會全部死亡。但以上並非特異性症狀。
組織病理學檢查
可在淋巴器官、造血器官、 外殼下的結締組織、、綠腺、 生殖腺、神經索及神經節發現中等至大量,均質深染嗜鹼性, 橢圓形大小為2 µm或更小的質內 包涵體。其中淋巴器官、胃#(F35)#的基丁質下組織及三者最一觀察到此種病變。
病原致病性意義:(實際魚場及田間發病、抗藥性等情形)
黃頭病在出現臨床症狀3天後,會引起 草蝦近乎100%死亡率 。在澳洲GAV則曾引起過 草蝦近乎80%死亡率。泰國政府1996年估計,在1992年因黃頭病損失美金三千萬,1993年則損失四千萬。
診斷方法: 一級初步診斷: 無
二級初步診斷:組織病理學
三級初步診斷:電子顯微鏡檢查
一級確定診斷: 無
二級確定診斷:組織病理學特徵
三級確定診斷:以RT-PCR增幅、定序及基因庫比對
RT-PCR引子序列 (產物135 bp):
10F: 5'-CCG-CTA-ATT-TCA-AAA-ACT-ACG-3
144R: 5'-AAG-GTG-TTA-TGT-CGA-GGA-AGT-3'
RT-PCR反應液:
將2 µl RNA加入20 µl of PCR反應液 (10 mM Tris/HCl, pH 8.3, 50 mM KCl) 內含 2.5 U of M-MLV (Moloney murine leukaemia virus) reverse transcriptase, 1.0 U of ribonuclease inhibitor, 0.75 µM of antisense primer (144R), 1 mM each of dATP, dTTP, dCTP, and dGTP, and 5 mM of MgCl2, and incubate at 42°C for 15 minutes 合成 cDNA.。100°C 加熱 5 minutes,並冷卻至5°C。然後加入最終體積為100µl.PCR反應液內含1 x PCR mixture (10 mM Tris/HCl, pH 8.3, 50 mM KCl) ,2.5 U of Taq DNA polymerase (Perkin Elmer Cetus), ,2 mM MgCl2 及 0.75 µM of sense primer (10F)。
RT-PCR反應條件:
40循環(94°C for 30 seconds, 58°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 30 seconds),,最後 72°C再加熱 10 minutes。
治療方法:
預防控制方法: 詳細討論疫苗發展現況及飼養管理控制現況
1.避免引進污染的蝦苗及種蝦飼養。
相關圖片:
圖片參考來源:http://library.enaca.org/Health/FieldGuide/html/cv010yhd.htm
病蝦的鰓出現大量細胞壞死,核濃縮及核崩解(箭頭) (FAO FISHERIES TECHNICAL PAPER 402/2)
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