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嘉魶虹彩病毒病
疾病代碼: DIS00115
建立日期: 2008/12/22
更新日期: 2012/07/16
作 者: 涂堅
中文病名: 嘉魶虹彩病毒病
英文病名: Red sea bream iridoviral disease
疾病描述: 1.病原概述
病原型別:病毒
病原環境:淡水 淡鹹水 海水學名:Red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV)
病名(及俗名):RSIV
最早發現者: Inouye 等(1992)發現RSIV。 He等(2001)發現ISKNV。
OIE狀況:表列(Listed)
病原摘要:
本病(Red sea bream iridoviral disease)由兩個病原引起:嘉魶虹彩病毒(Red sea bream iridovirus)及傳染性脾臟與腎臟壞死病毒(infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus , ISKNV)。這兩個病毒目前暫定於虹彩病毒科(iridoviridae),巨大細胞屬(megalocytivirus)下。嘉魶虹彩病毒與傳染性脾臟與腎臟壞死病毒雖為同一屬,親緣性上相近,但是並不相同。此二病毒與魚類蛙類病毒(Ranavirus)屬下的病毒如epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European catfish iridovirus (ECV) 及 grouper iridovirus (GIV) 並不相同。
人畜共通:非人畜共通。
2.病原分類
位於虹彩病毒科iridoviridae,巨大細胞屬(megalocytivirus)。
別名:
命名沿革:
疾病特性:
(感染組織及器官:感染路徑、好發組織器官、宿主)
好發組織器官為腎臟。幼魚比成魚對本病毒敏感。本病毒在宿主持續感染與否目前不明。傳播媒介目前不明。水平感染。
RSIV感染宿主為:嘉魶red sea bream (Pagrus major), 黑鯛black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli), 黃鰭鯛yellowfin sea bream (Acanthopagrus latus), 日本真鯛crimson sea bream (Evynnis japonica), 青甘鰺Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata), 紅甘鲹greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), 黃尾鲹yellowtail amberjack (Seriola lalandi), hybrid of yellowtail amberjack and Japanese amberjack (S. lalandi × S. quinqueradiata), 縱帶鰺striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex), 藍鰭鮪northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), 日本馬加鰆Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius), 日本鯖chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), 真鲹Japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), 條石鯛Japanese parrotfish (Oplegnathus fasciatus), 斑石鯛spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus), 海鱺cobia (Rachycentron canadum), 黃蠟鲹snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii), 三線雞魚chicken grunt (Parapristipoma trilineatum), 厚唇石鱸crescent sweetlips (Plectorhynchus cinctus), 正龍占Chinese emperor (Lethrinus haematopterus), 青嘴龍占spangled emperor (Lethrinus nebulosus), 瓜子鱲largescale blackfish (Girella punctata), 許氏平鲉rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), 大黃魚croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), 赤點石斑魚Hong Kong grouper (Epinephelus akaara), 七帶石斑魚convict grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), 瑪拉巴石斑Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus), 褐石斑魚longtooth grouper (Epinephelus bruneus), 點帶石斑魚orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), 青石斑魚yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara), 鱸滑石斑魚greasy grouper (Epinephelus tauvina), 棕點石斑魚brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), 龍膽石斑giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), 七星鱸Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas), Lateolabrax sp., 金目鱸barramundi or sea bass (Lates calcarifer), 雜交條紋鱸hybrid of striped sea bass and white bass (Morone saxatilis× M. chrysops), 大嘴鱸largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 牙鮃bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus), 圓斑星鰈spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus), 紅鰭多紀魨torafugu (Takifugu rubripes)。
ISKNV 感染宿主為:鱖魚Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), 金目鱸baramundi or sea bass (Lates calcarifer), 紅鼓魚red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), 鯔Flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus), 點帶石斑魚orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), 其他石斑Epinephelus .

疾病型態及流行病學:(急性或慢性型態、器官傳播、分佈情形)
急性全身性感染型態。目前本病地理分佈在東南亞,包括日本、韓國、中國、臺灣、香港、泰國、新加坡、馬來西亞及菲律賓。

臨床症狀及病理學:
臨床上貧血、灰色及腫脹脾臟抹片Giemsa染色可見腫大之細胞。
病理學
脾臟可見胞質嗜鹼性濃染腫大之細胞。

病原致病性意義:(實際魚場及田間發病、抗藥性等情形)
死亡率由0-100%,依魚種、年齡、水溫、養殖條件而定。本病嚴重影響產量。
診斷方法: 一級初步診斷:臟器抹片
二級初步診斷:組織病理發現脾臟、心及腸可見嗜鹼性胞質濃染腫大之細胞。
三級初步診斷:以GF cell分離病毒,或電顯直接觀察乳劑。
一級確定診斷:無
二級確定診斷:無
三級確定診斷:以特異PCR進行增幅,出現特異性產物將產物定序及進
行基因庫比對
PCR引子:
The forward primer 1-F (5'-CTC-AAA-CAC-TCT-GGC-TCA-TC-3')
The reverse primer 1-R (5'-GCA-CCA-ACA-CAT-CTC-CTA-TC-3')
可增幅出 RSIV 及 ISKNV 兩種病毒,產物為570 bp。
若使用以下引子(來至RSIV DNA polymerase gene):
The forward primer 4-F (5'-CGG-GGG-CAA-TGA-CGA-CTA-CA-3')
The reverse primer 4-R (5'-CCG-CCT-GTG-CCT-TTT-CTG-GA-3') 則僅能增幅出RSIV病毒,產物為 568 bp。
PCR反應液:
包括1 µl 萃取DNA,1 mM 各個引子,200 mM dNTP,1.25 U Taq,2 mM MgCl2,1 x PCR buffer,最終體積為50 ul。
PCR條件
30 循環(94°C for 30 秒, 58°C for 60 秒 and 72°C for 60 秒),最後 72°C for 5 分。
治療方法: 目前並無治療方法。
預防控制方法: 詳細討論疫苗發展現況及飼養管理控制現況
1.日本目前已經有商品化福馬林不活化RSIV疫苗,供嘉魶、 縱帶鰺及其他鰺屬(Seriola sp.)魚隻使用。
2.避免引進汙染的魚苗;避免密飼及過度投餌的緊迫;做好水質管理。
相關圖片:
參考文獻: 1.Chou H.Y., Hsu C.C. & Peng T.Y. (1998). Isolation and characterization of a pathogenic iridovirus from cultured grouper (Epinephelus sp.) in Taiwan. Fish Pathol., 33, 201-206.

2.Chua F.H., Ng M.L, Ng K.L, Loo J.J. & Lee J.Y. (1994). Investigation of outbreaks of a novel disease, "Sleepy Grouper Disease", affecting the brown-spotted grouper, Epinephelus tauvina Forsakl. J. Fish Dis., 17, 417-427.

3.Do J.W., Cha S.J., Kim J.S., An E.J., Park M.S., Kim J.W., Kim Y.C., Park M.A. & Park J.W. (2005). Sequence variation in the gene encoding the major capsid protein of Korean fish iridoviruses. Arch. Virol., 150, 351-359.

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5.Gibson-Kueh S., Ngoh-Lim G.H., Netto P., Kurita J., Nakajima K. & Ng M.L. (2004). A systematic iridoviral disease in mullet, Mugil cephalus L. and tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Forsskal: a first report and study. J. Fish Dis., 27, 693-699.

6.He J.G., Deng M.S, Weng P., Li Z., Zhou S.Y., Long Q.X., Wang X.Z., & Chang S.M. (2001). Complete genome analysis of the mandarin fish infectious spleen and kidney necrosis iridovirus. Virology, 291, 126-139.

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26.Nakajima K., Maeno Y., Honda A., Yokoyama K., Tooriyama T. & Manabe S. (1999). Effectiveness of a vaccine against red sea bream iridoviral disease in a field trial test. Dis. Aquat. Org., 36, 73-75.

27.Nakajima K., Maeno Y., Kurita J. & Inui Y. (1997). Vaccination against red sea bream iridoviral disease in red sea bream. Fish Pathol., 32, 205-209.

28.Nakajima K., Maeno Y., Yokoyama K., Kaji C. & Manabe S. (1998). Antigen analysis of red sea bream iridovirus and comparison with other fish iridoviruses. Fish Pathol., 33, 73-78.

29.Nakajima K. & Sorimachi M. (1994). Biological and physico-chemical properties of the iridovirus isolated from cultured red sea bream, Pagrus major. Fish Pathol., 29, 29-33.

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31.Oseko N., Chuah T.T., Palamisamy V., Maeno Y. & Kurita J. (2004). Iridovirus isolated from diseased sea bass Lates calcarifer and red drum Sciaenops ocellatus causing mass mortality in Malaysia. In: 7th Asian Fisheries Forum 04 Abstracts, Penang, Malaysia, 127.

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36.Qin Q.W., Lam T.J., Shen H., Chang S.F., Ngoh G.H. & Chen C.L. (2001). Electron microscopic observations of a marine fish iridovirus isolated from brown-spotted grouper, Epinephelus tauvina. J. Virol. Methods, 98, 17-24.

37.Shi C.Y., Wang Y.G, Yang S.L, Huang J. & Wang Q.Y. (2004). The first report of an iridovirus-like agent infection in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in China. Aquaculture, 236, 11-25.

38.Song W.J., Qin Q.W., Qiu J., Huang C.H., Wang F. & Hew C.L. (2004). Functional genomic analysis of Singapore grouper iridovirus: Complete sequence determination and proteomic analysis. J. Virol., 78, 12576-12590.

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參考連結:
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