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發光桿菌病
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鯉魚春季毒血症
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白尾症
疾病代碼: DIS00124
作 者: 涂堅
中文病名: 白尾症
英文病名: White tail disease
疾病描述: 1.病原概述
病原型別:病毒
病原環境:淡水 淡鹹水
學名:Baculovirus penaei Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV).
病名(及俗名): WTD, White muscle disease (WMD)
最早發現者:最早Arcier等 (1999)發現。
OIE狀況:表列(Listed)。
病原摘要:
MrNV為二十面體、無封套 RNA病毒,大小為26–27 nm 。病毒在組織中的結締組織細胞核內增殖。基因組由兩段RNA組成,capsid protein為43 KDa。XSV是一個衛星病毒,大小為14–16 nm, 常伴隨MrNV出現;基因組由一段RNA組成,capsid protein為17 KDa。發病蝦常可同時發現這兩種病毒,暗示與本病有關,但真正角色尚未明瞭。
.人畜共通:非人畜共通傳染病
2.病原分類
病原分類::野田病毒科 Nodaviridae.
別名:
命名沿革:

疾病特性:(感染組織及器官:感染路徑、好發組織器官、宿主)
可感染對蝦有泰國長腳大蝦Macrobrachium rosenbergii 或 Malaysian prawn。
感染途徑為水平及垂直感染。感染蝦苗(postlarvae)為主,成蝦為帶原者。感染橫紋肌肌肉為主。

疾病型態及流行病學:(急性或慢性型態、器官傳播分佈情形)
急性型態。目前分佈地理區域為法屬西印度群島、多明尼加、中國、臺灣及印度。.

臨床症狀及病理學
感染的後期蝦苗體幹呈乳色不透明。然後會產生95%的高死亡率。主要影響到腹部及頭胸部肌肉,以及肝胰腺的結締組織。
組織病理學檢查
橫紋肌纖維多發局部性晶狀變性壞死

病原致病性意義:(實際魚場及田間發病、抗藥性等情形)
田間造成蝦苗高死亡率。
診斷方法: 一級初步診斷:臨床症狀
二級初步診斷:組織病理學
三級初步診斷:電顯觀察
一級確定診斷:無
二級確定診斷:無
三級確定診斷:以RT-PCR或LAMP增幅、定序及基因庫比對
1.MrNV引子 (產物425 bp,Sahul Hameed et al., 2004)
The forward primer : 5’-GCG-TTA-TAG-ATG-GCA-CAA-GG-3’
The reverse primer: 5’-AGC-TGT-GAA-ACT-TCC-ACT-GG-3’
PCR反應液
50 ul 反應液:使用one step RT PCR kit (Abgene) ,另外添加20 pmol 引子及 RNA模板。或自配反應液含RTase, Taq DNA polymerase及dNTP。
PCR反應條件
先以52oC 30分合成 cDNA ;然後94oC 2分不活化RT酶;30循環(94oC 40秒,55oC 40秒,68oC 1分),最後在68oC 10分。

2.XSV引子 (產物500 bp,Widada et al., 2004)
The forward primer : 5 ’-GGA-GAA-CCA-TGA-GAT-CACG-3’
The reverse primer: 5’-CTG-CTC-ATT-ACT-GTTCGG-AGT-3’
PCR反應液
50 ul 反應液:使用one step RT PCR kit (Abgene) ,另外添加20 pmol 引子及 RNA模板。或自配反應液含RTase, Taq DNA polymerase及dNTP。
PCR反應條件
先以52oC 30分合成 cDNA ;然後94oC 2分不活化RT酶;30循環(94oC 40秒,55oC 40秒,68oC 1分),最後在68oC 10分。
治療方法:
預防控制方法: 詳細討論疫苗發展現況及飼養管理控制現況
1.以RT-PCR篩選無病原的種蝦及蝦苗
2.做好場內消毒及自家防衛
相關圖片:
圖片參考來源:http://library.enaca.org/Health/FieldGuide/html/cv040wtd.htm
參考文獻: 1.ARCIER J.M., HERMAN F., LIGHTNER D.V., REDMAN R., MARI J., BONAMI J.R. (1999). A viral disease associated with mortalities in hatchery-reared postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 38, 177–181.
2.BONAMI J.R., SHI Z., QIAN D. & WIDADA J.S. (2005). White tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Separation of the associated virions and characterization of MrNV as a new type of nodavirus. Journal of Fish Disease, 28(1), 23–32.
3.Hsieh CY, Wu ZB, Tung MC, Tu C, Lo SP, Chang TC, Chang CD, Chen SC, Hsieh YC, Tsai SS 2006. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), in Taiwan. J Fish Dis.;29(11):665-71.
4.QIAN D., SHI Z., ZHANG S., CAO Z., LIU W., LI L., XIE Y., CAMBOURNAC I. & BONAMI J.R. (2003). Extra small virus-like particles (XSV) and nodavirus associated with whitish muscle disease in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Journal of Fish Disease, 26, 521–527.
5.ROMESTAND B. & BONAMI J.R. (2003). A sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) for detection of MrNV in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). Journal of Fish Disease, 26, 71–75.
6.SAHUL HAMEED A.S., YOGANANDHAN K., WIDADA J.S. & BONAMI J.R. (2004). Studies on the occurrence and RT-PCR detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus-like particles associated with white tail disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in India. Aquaculture, 238, 127-133
7.SAHUL HAMEED A.S., YOGANANDHAN K., WIDADA J.S. & BONAMI J.R. (2004). Experimental transmission and tissue tropism of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus like-particles in Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 62, 191-196.
8.TUNG C.W., WANG C.S. & CHEN S.N. (1999). Histological and electron microscopic study on Macrobrachium muscle virus (MMV) infection in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium
rosenbergii (de Man), cultured in Taiwan. Journal of Fish Disease, 22, 319-324.
9.WIDADA J.S., DURAND S., CAMBOURNAC I., QIAN D., SHI Z., DEJONGHE E., RICHARD V. & BONAMI J.R. (2003). Genomebased detection methods of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus, a pathogen of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii: dot-blot, in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. Journal of Fish Disease, 26, 583–590.
10.WIDADA J.S., RICHARD V., CAMBOURNAC I., SHI Z., QIAN D. & BONAMI J.R. (2004). Dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR detection of extra small virus (XSV) associated with white tail disease of prawn Macrobrachium rossenbergii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 58, 83–87.
11.WIDADA J.S. & BONAMI J.R. (2004). Characteristics of the monocistronic genome of extra small virus, a virus-like particle associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus: Possible candidate for a new species of satellite virus. Journal of General Virology, 85, 643–646
12.YOGANANDHAN K., WIDADA J.S., BONAMI J.R. & SAHUL HAMEED A.S. (2005). Simultaneous detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus by a single tube, one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay. Journal of Fish Disease, 28, 65–69.
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